Occurs due to decreased ciculation of fluid volume such as blood and blood products. Categorized into two types with various causes
The Chvostek sign—a contraction of ipsilateral facial muscles subsequent to percussion over the facial nerve—is considered a clinical indicator of hypocalcemia.
Hyperglycemia commonly is associated with acute hemorrhage. This is due to a glucagon and growth hormone–induced increase in gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Circulating catecholamines relatively inhibit insulin release and activity, leading to increased plasma glucose.
Older patients are less able to mount a tachycardia in response to decreased stoke volume because of decreased beta-adrenergic receptors in the heart and a decreased effective volume of pacing myocytes within the sinoatrial node.